Upon drilling oil comes out of the ground as crude oil that has to be refined through scientific processes to come up with the different components of oil that we have today. Over millions of years, dead organisms sink deep into the earth and decompose forming the oil. The earth experiences some movement under the plates and in result the movements trap oil and natural gas between the reservoir rocks.
Without the oil companies the energy industry would not be what it is today. To have oil, exploration followed by extraction has to take place and it’s all the work of oil companies. Exploration is conducted by geologists who are tasked with finding the crude oil and pinpointing the exact location where the extraction will be effected. They are tasked with finding areas that have good conditions that ,would trap oil. The gravitational change in the earth’s crust will change from time to time and that needs to be observed by the geologists as it could indicate the direction in which the oil flows. 3D and 4D seismic imaging can also be used in the locating of oil that is trapped in the earth’s reservoir rocks. This kind of oil exploration works by sending some shocks with some special equipment deep into the hidden rocks of the earth.
The reflections of the waves are then sent back to the surface of the earth where the geologist will then analyze them to have some results. When the results of the exploration has revealed that a there are oil deposits that are worth mining , the area is marked with buoys if located under a water body and if on land the coordinates are marked. When an area has been identified , extraction does not begin right away. The geologists embark on conducting an environment impact study and marking the perimeter boundaries as well. A company will only start to mine when they have been awarded the rights by the authorities in charge of the area with the deposits. With the rights obtained the company begins the mining by clearing the area of any vegetation that may be obstructing movement. To move machinery easily the company starts by coming up with some access roads to the area to move machines with ease.
Water is needed for the drilling process and if there is no water nearby the company will first drill boreholes. The company will also dig pits for disposing mud and the rocks during the excavation process. A pit is dug around the main drilling area for easy access, after that actual drilling can begin.